Religion in its various forms is very strong in Nigeria. In other words, Nigerian people are very religious most of them believe that there is an unseen supernatural world, apart from the natural world we see around us. This other world is inhabited by beings who are the source of our knowledge of good and evil. They watch and judge us, and if we offend them they may have to be appeased with prayers and sacrifices. Certain individuals in the natural in the natural world-priests, prophets and diviners- are believed to be endowed with special powers to make contact with the other world. These individuals lay down ceremonies or rituals which must be observed if due honour is to be paid to the unseen beings. The religious belief and practices of Nigerians can be classified under three main headings: Traditional religion, Islam and Christianity. In this passage, our focus is on traditional religion.
Traditional or indigenous religion continues to exert a strong influence on many people's mind partly because of its association with their birth places and families. Each ethnic group has its own religious traditional and these are often linked to some sacred spots in the ethnic homeland. Yet the various traditional religions have much in common: a remote but benevolent high god; under him, a number of lesser gods who interact with mankind; and below them various spirits who inhabit natural objects (trees, streams, rock, etc); below them again, and closest to living men and women, the spirits of the ancestors.
In the Yoruba tradition, for example, there are more than 400 lesser deities presided over by the high god, olorun. Because he is remote from mankind, shrines are not built to him and worship is not offered to him directly. The lesser gods, on the other hand, are the subject of special cults, each with its own priests and devotees. Eshu, the messenger of the gods; lfa, the god of divination; Shango, the god of thunder, and so on. Traditional religion was also strong in other parts of Nigeria. In lgbo Traditional religion, there were fewer gods. Although there was a remote high god, the most important figure was Ala or Ani, the goddess of the earth. In Hausaland, traditional religion has largely gone underground owing to the influence of lslam, but belief in the existence of 'Bori' spirits and their power to possess people, especially woman, is strong in some areas. Each spirit is associated with certain type of behaviou, which is manifested by the possessed individual
Divination - the discovery of what is unknown or is yet to happen by supernatural or magical means - is an important element of traditional religion. It is often one of the functions of medicine - men or herbalists. In lgboland, there also used to be several oracles which people consulted in order to seek solutions to their problems. With the coming of Christianity, their influence has however waned, but in areas like Arochukwu and Okija, the influence of such oracles is still strongly felt.
From the passage, one can say that all the ethnic groups have
A. different traditional religion with some elements of similarities
B. completely different religious practices
C. the same traditional religion
D. the same religious manifestation with common deities
According to the passage there is a believe that there is an unseen supernatural world, apart from the natural world we see around us. This other world is inhabited by beings who are the source of our knowledge of good and evil. There is an explanation video available below.
Recent literary researches reveal that Nigerians hardly have time to read . In essence, the reading culture in Nigeria is now at a low ebb. It is disturbing, however, that few Nigerians that read concentrate more on foreign books than indigenous productions. Most Nigerian authors of novels,storybooks, fictions and non-fiction series have decried, on different, occasions, their woes. The were bitter at the way most owners of bookshops and publishers treat them. It was gathered to stock foreign books. when contacted by DAILY INDEPENDENT, the general manager of a popular bookstore on Lagos lsland declared that most of the bookshops preferred to stock foreign books because of higher demands for them. The question that bothers most Nigerian authors is , while their overseas counterparts are being rewarded with great international honours, why are Nigerians not according them such recognition in their own country?
Recently, "Nigerian novelist, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, won the 2007 Orange Prize Award, the literary world's top award for fiction in English written by women. The award carries a prize tag of $30,000 it was reported in Publishers Weekly, Half of a Yellow Sun, the book that earned her the award, was profoundly gripping. According to the reviewer, the book is a transcendent novel of many descriptive triumphs, most notably its diction of the impact of war brutalities on peasants and intellectuals alike. It is searing history in fictional form, intensely evocative and immensely absorbing. Chinua Achebe, 'Father of Modern African Literature, also won the second ever Man Booker International Prize of £60,000 with his first novel Things Fall Apart, published in 1958. When Professor Wole Syinka won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986, the fame confirmed the relevance of Nigerians in the world of classical excellence. Ben Okri won the 1991 Booker Prize with his work, The Famished Road, and the world celebrated Nigeria as the giant of Africa.
It was also , gathered that most of the publishers hurriedly produce books and in the process marred their good contents. Most of the books are not properly edited and eventually become substandard when compared with foreign products. The extent to which book publishing standard has fallen in Nigeria alarming. Often Nigerian publishers have been blamed for this. It is instructive that none of the books mentioned had been published in Nigeria. It was discovered that most students in tertiary institution depend on dictations from their lectures and /or handouts. A science lecturer in one of the Nigeria universities, who had been a victim of handout sales scandal, told DAILY INDEPENDENT the reality of campus challenges in relation to books; I was forced to dictate notes slowly to students who hung on my every word in the absence of textbooks in a library that had, to all intent and purpose, stopped buying new books when the local currency was devalued. But what other alternative does one have?
Adapted from DAILY INDEPENDENT, Monday, 20 August, 2007
It can be inferred from the passage that
A. Nigerians have access to foreign books only
B. Nigerian undergraduates do not read text books
C. Nigerians read foreign and indigenous books alike
It is said that experience is the best teacher, but to learn consciously through wisdom may even be a better and more convenient way. T learn by experience is to learn from mistakes. It means you have burnt our fingers and now your eyes are open'. This is a tough, costly and inconvenient way to learn. Rather than leaving our learning to experience, why do we not learn consciously going out way to acquire knowledge and wisdom rather than leave our learning to chance.
Surely, we can learn from mistakes but why wait till when we make mistakes before we lean? We should give more premium to learning by wisdom than by experience.
This will involve one making up ones mind to be decisive in learning. We must decide to learn consciously and not necessarily from negative experiences. The first step is to realize that life is simply the outcome and outplay of decisions. Our life now is the sum total of our decisions and our future will be determined by our decisions. Our life now is the sum total of our decisions and our future will be determined by our decisions of today. If we decide to learn today we are not likely to make mistakes and when we do not make mistakes, experience need not be our best teacher.
To avoid making experience our best teacher will take more than a decision. We must couple our decision with a complete and -wholehearted devotion. We must be resolved, resolute and resilient in our bid to learn by wisdom and not necessarily by experience. This is crucial because situations and circumstances will want us to make a detour and leave our learning and life to chance. We must therefore be disciplined to remain with our resolve to make a clean break with experience as our best teacher. Disciplined in this regard means learning something new everyday by wisdom rather than rather than experience. It
means consciously getting better by the day in your chosen field. Discipline will demand taking advantage of every learning opportunity that comes our way. It will mean we must pay the price for learning by wisdom -invest in books, magazines, seminars and other means by which we may become wiser.
It is much easier and cheaper to learn consciously by wisdom than to learn by experience. When we learn by experience , the deed is done and we are just picking up the pieces-learning in regret how to avoid such predicament next time. Consider the child who grapes a burning coal, he has learned the hard way through the painful experience, but his fingers will remain burnt. Thus the saying, that experience is the best teacher, may not be justifiable after all.
Adapted from Sunday Tribune , July 2007
The attitude of the writer of the passage can best be described as
We must decide to learn consciously and not necessarily from negative experiences. Our life now is the sum total of our decisions and our future will be determined by our decisions. There is an explanation video available below.
According to the passage, We must couple our decision with a complete and -wholehearted devotion. This means, acting without doubts, because our life now is the sum total of our decisions and our future will be determined by our decisions. There is an explanation video available below.
This means to be experiencing a particularly joyous or successful period, situation, or event. ei, the vice chancellor is enjoying the successes of his administration. There is an explanation video available below.