Music plays a vital role in human society. Good music provides entertainment and emotional release, and it accompanies activities ranging from dances to religious ceremonies. Music is heard everywhere; in auditoriums, homes, elevators, schools, sports arenas and on the streets. Recorded performance is a sensational innovation elevation of the twentieth century. Thanks to modern technology like compact disc (CD) digital video disc (DVD) and the MP 3 player, music can now be heard in divers places. Such places include living rooms and cars, jogging paths can also function as new kinds of concert halls where we can hear what we want as often as we want.
Live performances provide a special excitement. In a live performance artistes put themselves on the line. To avoid embarrassment, the artiste must train before hand and ensure that technical difficulties are avoided and that the listeners are actively involved. What is performed, how it sounds to the excitement of such a moment and feelings are exchanged between stage and hall.
Our response to a musical performance or an artiste is subjective and rooted in deep feelings. Even professional critics can differ strongly in their evaluations of a performance. There is no one ''Truth'' about what we hear and feel. Does the performed project a concept, an overall idea, or an emotion? Do some sections of a piece, but not others, communicate something to you? Can you figure out why? It is up to us as listeners to evaluate performances of music so that we can fully enjoy it. People listen to music in many different ways. For instance, music can be a barely perceived background as in a film or a totally absorbing experience as in a concert.
Adapted from Roger, K. (1990) An Appreciation Music: Fourth Brief Edition, McGrow-Hill Higher Education.
The expression....stage and hall, as used in the passage, means the
In 1951, the Government decided to start a Pottery Training Centre where new and more advantaged technical methods, especially glazing, could be taught. The centre was intended to serve the whole of the defunct Northern Region, and there were several reasons for choosing Abuja . The first was the excellence of the traditional pottery made in the Emirate. Secondly, firewood is plentiful; this is a most important consideration, because in the making of glazed pottery, more firewood than clay is required. Thirdly, there are good clays, and good local sources for the raw materials needed for the glazes. Fourthly, water, which is another important raw material, is plentiful. Finally, Abuja is in a central position for the whole region and is a town where learners from many different parts can find a congenial temporary home, and where the Emir and his Council are actively interested in the project.
Nearly all the making is done by a process called throwing;, so called because the lumps of clay are thrown the potter onto a wheel-head. They are weigh out so that each pot will be roughly the same size; for example, for making pint-sized jugs, the lumps of clay will be one and a half kilogrammes. The potter sits on the saddle of the wheel and spins it by pushing a pedal with his left foot. He has a bowl of water, a loofah, a bamboo knife, a pointed stick or porcupine quill, a wooden-smoothing tool which potters call a rib, and a piece of wire-like object that is used for wedging. He makes the wheel-heal slightly damp, and throws the lumps into the middle. The first work is to force the lump to the centre, then he presses his thumb into the middle of the lump, using water to keep it slippery. When the bottom is of the right thickness, he begins to draw up the walls until they are of the right height. Then he shapes the belly and shoulder of the pot. He trims off any waste clay. In this way, a small and medium-sized pot can be made quickly and accurately.
Adapted from Robert, J.M.E and Smith, L.E.M (1978) Testing English language, AUP
Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A. pots can be made quickly and correclty
B. A pot thrown on a wheel is less likely to break
C. the potter does not have to work hard if he uses the wheel
D. anyone, with almost no training can run pots on a wheel
''Abuja is in a central position for the whole region and is a town where learners from many different parts can find a congenial temporary home'' According to the passage, congenial means a nice place. There is an explanation video available below.
Whatever may be its wider implications, the explosion of hydrogen bomb is, for the meteorologist, simply another atmospheric disturbance. It should therefore be classed with certain rare natural.....such as volcanic ....12... But there are certain features of a man-made disturbance that requires special examination. As with all events on this ....13...It is impossible to describe what happens in details. However we can be reasonably sure of the main effects, and most impressive of these arises from ....14...The immediate result of the ....15....is that the air surrounding the bomb is raised very rapidly to an enormously high.....16....The hot gases expand violently as great........17.....compressing the air around them into what is called .....18......or blast wave that is responsible for much of terrible destructive power of the weapon.
Another kind of wave arises because of the weight of the air. The force of the explosion lifts the ....19...waves. Waves of this type are normally felt by human beings and they have their effect on the weather.
Adapted from Ayoola K.(2007) University for All Students, Lagos, Nigeria: Olive Free Venture
Choose the most appropriate answer in the numbered:
Temperature; the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch. There is an explanation video available below.
shockwaves; a sharp change of pressure in a narrow region travelling through a medium, especially air, caused by explosion or by a body moving faster than sound. There is an explanation video available below.
space wave; The component of an electromagnetic wave (especially a radio wave) that travels directly from transmitter to receiver without being reflected. There is an explanation video available below.
This question is based on Chukwuemeka Ike's The Potter's Wheel. In their preparation for the masquerade, David and others agreed to exercise extra caution in their dealings with Samuel because he would